Surgery is a treatment option for early-stage anal cancer, particularly stage 0, as well as some stage I and II anal cancers. You and your medical oncologist would discuss the pros and cons of surgery before deciding if it’s an appropriate option for you. There are two surgical procedures for anal cancer, depending on the type and location of the tumor
Rectal prolapse is a condition in which the rectum (the last part of the large intestine before it exits the anus) loses its normal attachments inside the body, allowing it to telescope out through the anus, thereby turning it “inside out”. While this may be uncomfortable, it rarely results in an emergent medical problem. However, it can be quite embarrassing and often has a significant negative impact on patients’ quality of life.
An anal fissure is a small cut or tear in the lining of the anus. The crack in the skin causes severe pain and some bright red bleeding during and after bowel movements. At times the fissure is deep enough to expose the muscle tissue underneath.
An anal fissure may occur as a result of childbirth, straining during bowel movements, or long bouts of constipation or diarrhea. Anal fissures can also be the result of certain medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), infection, and cancer.
An anal abscess is an infected cavity filled with pus found near the anus or rectum. Ninety percent of abscesses are the result of an acute infection in the internal glands of the anus. Occasionally, bacteria, fecal material or foreign matter can clog an anal gland and tunnel into the tissue around the anus or rectum, where it may then collect in a cavity called an abscess.